HOWARD PARTICLE PHYSICS GROUP

Illustrations


New Empirical Paradigm Scale to Atomic Nature
Two Deuterium Nuclei in the act of colliding and each being broken apart into its two baryon particles, a proton and a neutron, for recombination in a fusion reaction into the possible products.

Each proton and neutron combination is bound together by the strong force.  Within the combination each proton or neutron triplet of quarks is bound even more strongly by that force at its shorter separations plus the linking effects of the electric forces of the charged quanta in the expanded synchronized linking orbits shown by the dashed lines. The red spheres and expanded orbits are positively charged up quarks.  The blue are negatively charged down quarks.

The expanded link orbit of each odd quark sphere in a triplet is circular.  The two other link orbits of spheres in a triplet are quasi-ellipticaI in plan, with each sphere at the centroid of the orbit rather than at one of the foci as in a true ellipse.  These orbits have a non-elliptical constant component of angular velocity because of the mixture of strong and electric forces on them in the triplet setting. A link orbit’s expansion is to twice the diameter of its quark sphere.  In quarks if this orbit did not expand out of the sphere, its orbiting quanta would have fatal collisions with other quanta orbiting on the sphere within less than half an orbit, and the quark could not exist in synchronous balance.

Thus quarks can only exist in baryon triplets of mutual linkages or briefly in chains of pairs of quarks as meson residues of broken baryon triplets.  Baryon triplet details are to be shown later.

--Here colors are arbitrary.  The outer red circle is the sphere outline, not an orbit.--

The spheric assembly of the 6 synchronizable orbits of pairs of charged quanta in a “usual” “elementary” particle.

The linking orbits of Fig. 3, if included, would be in the plane of the Sum Equator orbit (purple) around the red Summation Axis SO with a black ring around it in the centroid of the black primary quadrant of the 3 primary ABC orthogonal orbits which balance around the SO axis.  The 2 other orbits that balance around that axis are the ++ (green dashes) and - - (orange line) orbits.

(These identifying names do not mean that oppositely charged pairs or +- neutral pairs can never appear on these orbits, but rather that they often cancel summation effects projected on SO.)
--Again the colors are random, and the outline of the sphere is not an orbit.--

The same sphere as in Fig. 4 in a more symmetrical view along the plane of the Sum Equator orbit through the point at which that orbit crosses the C, ++, and - - orbits.

The axes of these orbits are in the plane of the display. The A and B orbits and axial poles overlay each other. 

It is seen that the S Eq. orbit exactly balances the - - orbit around the C axis.
--Again the colors are random--

Another perfectly symmetrical view along the SO axis.
  The outline of the sphere is the S Eq. orbit, in whose plane the expanded linking orbits are not shown because they only occur in quarks, not in the other “elementary” particles.  The SO axis primary pole is inherently at the Quantum Mechanics quantization angle of arccos one over the square root of 3 from each of the primary axes A, B, and C at the corners of the spherical quadrant which is primary because a quantum of each of the ABC pairs passes along a leg of this quadrant in the same direction as the charge rotational handedness of the entire sphere and at the same time.

On the opposite secondary quadrant the passage of quanta around the quadrant is reversed.  This defines the sphere of synchronizable orbits.

There is also a non-orbiting spinning pole axis for coaxial pairs of quanta through the centroids of all 8 quadrants of the orthogonal orbits, including the SO axis poles.  The variable distributions of pairs of quanta in determined orbital sites at the same orbital angular rate with clearance requirements of 15 spherical degrees defines as quarks those distributions which cannot be synchronized without expanding the S Eq. orbits because of interferences otherwise at the crossing of the S Eq., ++, and - - orbits noted in Fig. 5.